zaterdag 21 juli 2012

Czech Republic, Kutná Hora: Historical Town Centre with the Church of St Barbara and the Cathedral of Our Lady at Sedlec

Kutná Hora developed as a result of the exploitation of the silver mines. In the 14th century it became a royal city endowed with monuments that symbolized its prosperity. The Church of St Barbara, a jewel of the late Gothic period, and the Cathedral of Our Lady at Sedlec, which was restored in line with the Baroque taste of the early 18th century, were to influence the architecture of central Europe. These masterpieces today form part of a well-preserved medieval urban fabric with some particularly fine private dwellings.

Kutná Hora was one of the most important political and economic centres of Bohemia in the 14th and 15th centuries. Its medieval centre and the churches are outstanding examples of architectural development and testify to the cultural vivacity of the area.
The town is built above the steep descent of the Vrchlice Creek, in the Kutna Hora plateau, 254 m above sea level and some 60 km east of Prague, developed as a result of the exploitation of the silver mines. The prosperity of Kutná Hora silver mines reached its climax in the 14th and 15th centuries when the city became one of the richest places in Europe. In July 1300, based on the rich silver strikes in the area, King Václav II implemented a currency reform with the participation of Italian financiers. All existing mints in the Czech nation went out of operation, and in the central mint at Vlašský dvur the first Prague groschen were struck. Kutná Hora thus became the country's most important economic centre, and at the same time it was being transformed into a royal town, with all the rights and privileges to be confirmed later by King Jan Lucemburský and King Charles IV.
The town became the cultural, political and economic centre of Bohemia, competing for importance, even with Prague. In the 14th century it became a royal city endowed with monuments that symbolized its prosperity. The end of the 15th century brought this burgeoning town an unusual construction development. Work was begun on a new town hall, a Stone House and some majestic patrician houses. At the beginning of the 16th century, the mines in the city centre were gradually exhausted and abandoned, with mining continuing primarily at Kanek.
The historical centre is an architectural jewel of European significance: Vlašský dvur, St Barbara's Cathedral, the Church of St James, the Stone House and the Gothic fountain are some of the most precious landmarks in Bohemia. Other man-made landmarks are located in nearby Sedlec and Malin.
The interior of the Church of St Barbara, a jewel of the late Gothic period, is decorated with medieval frescoes depicting the secular life of the medieval mining town of Kutná Hora. The Cathedral of the Holy Virgin Barbara was built in the late 14th century and during the 15th to the first half of the 16th centuries. It originated in spite of the until then most influential authority controlling the development of the town - the Sedlec Cistercian monastery. It was an expression of the importance and power of the upper town, formed from the Seventies of the 13th century by mining communities.
The cathedral symbolizes the self-esteem and exceptional ambitions and possibilities of the Kutna Hora patricians, who in view of their wealth enjoyed the favour of the Czech rulers. With royal aid they gained royal privileges and the possibility of contact with the most developed manifestations of European art at the time for their town. The first designer of the cathedral was John Parler, who designed the building with a gallery round the presbytery. Originally the cathedral was to have been triple-aisled and longer; however, it was soon changed into a five-aisled building. Other outstanding architects were Matyas Rejsek, who worked at Kutná Hora from 1489 until his death in 1506, and Benedikt Rejt, who died in 1534. In 1558 the cathedral was completed with the construction of the facade and three tent roofs. By that time the silver mines were virtually exhausted and means for the further furnishing and maintenance of the cathedral were lacking.
In 1626 the Jesuits arrived in the town and placed the cathedral under their administration. They began to carry out building modifications. They also changed the environs of the cathedral and, from the 1660s, began to build their college in its close vicinity. In 1905 the cathedral was newly consecrated. The Cathedral of Our Lady at Sedlec, which was restored in line with the Baroque taste of the early 18th century, was to influence the architecture of central Europe.

Historical Description

There has been human settlement in the Kutná Hora region from early times. There was a mint there in the 10th century AD, associated with the rich deposits of silver ore. It was the latter that determined the earliest occupation in what is now the historic centre of the town, which seems to have been occupied by numerous scattered mining settlements in the 13th-16th centuries. The complex street plan of Kutná Hora is attributable to this early exploitation of the mineral resources, although it preserves what is almost certainly an anCient, nonurban road junction at its core, one road leading to Malin and the other to Časlav, both ancient settlements. Another old road leads to Kolín. The many small mining settlements in Kutná Hora itself are indicated by the small Romanesque parish Churches that existed until their disestablishment at the late 18th century: only one survives to the present day.
This pattern of settlement appears to date from the 12th century. The mid-13th century saw major Changes in the occupation of the land. The royal fortified towns of Časlav and Kolín were founded in the early 1260s, both closely associated with the silver mining in the area, which quickly developed during the reign of Wenceslas II (1285-1305) into a major industrial region. The extent and intensity of this exploitation of the mineral resources of Kutná Hora is reported in documents of the period from as far away as the Rhineland. It seems to have been uncontrolled: Kutná Hora was a boom town like those of North America during the Gold Rush of the 19th century.
This situation came to an end with the establishment in 1300 by Wenceslas II of a mint at the Vlašský dvur (Italian court) on the southern edge of what is now the historical centre of Kutná Hora, to produce the so-called 'Prague groschen" that was the basis of his coinage reform. In effect Kutná Hora became a Royal mining town, giving it a status second only to that of the capital of Bohemia, Prague. This new status is reflected first not in the town itself but at Sedlec, where Wenceslas established a major monastic house for the order that he favoured, the Cistercians. The earlier Romanesque church was demolished to make way for a magnificent cathedral in the High Gothic style.
The growing importance of the town is reflected in the accounts of the two Sieges, in 1304 and 1307, by Albrecht Habsburg. The first was repelled despite the fact that its defences were rudimentary, and when Albrecht returned three years later he was equally unsuccessful, since by then Kutná Hora was enclosed by massive stone walls. The Hrádek (Little Castle) probably dates from the same period. The early decades of the 14th century saw Kutná Hora being transformed from a chaotic mining settlement into a proper town, and by the middle of the century the definitive system of defences was complete, with its four main gates, moat, and bastions. The present street pattern was evolved from the haphazard communications of the mining boom and what must have been largely wooden houses were replaced by substantial stone houses. Public buildings began to appear, such as the first town hall and a number of Churches. Work on the monumental church of St Barbara began in the 1380s, outside the crowded town proper. Although it is of cathedral-like proportions, it has almost always had no more than the status of a daughter church of the parish church of nearby Pnĕvice.
The Hussite wars of 1419-34 saw profound changes at Kutná Hora. Sedlec Monastery was destroyed by fire in 1421, to remain in a ruined state until the late 17th century, and there were serious fires in the town itself in 1422 and 1424 which destroyed most of its buildings. However, the wealth resulting from silver mining ensured that it was rapidly rebuilt when peace was restored. Work on the churches was led by two outstanding architects of the period, Matĕj Rejsek and Benedikt Ried. The defences were supplemented by an outer wall, with irregularly spaced artillery bastions, and the Hradek was rebuilt in Late Gothic style. The town was also embellished by many splendid merchant houses and with the system of arcades that is such a feature of Kutná Hora.
The relative lack Of Renaissance buildings in the town graphically illustrates the sudden decline in its fortunes in the early 1540S, when the silver mines became exhausted. The economic stagnation of Kutná Hora was exacerbated by the after-effects Of the Thirty Years' war (1618-48): although the town was not itself directly affected by the war, it fell into a deeper decline and over two hundred of its 574 houses were deserted or demolished. The establishment of a Jesuit College in the 17th century did little more than endow the town with a striking new arChitectural feature, similar to the High Baroque renovation of Sedlec cathedral in the early 18th century by Jan Blažej santini and the work of Killian Ignaz Dientzenhofer at the Ursuline convent and the Chapel of the Holy Trinity.
The dissolution of Sedlec Monastery in 1785 was followed by the deconsecration and demolition of many of the town's smaller churches, and others disappeared in the first half of the 19th century. It was not until 1850, when Kutná Hora became an administrative centre of some importance, that the town began to revive and to begin to concern itself about its architectural heritage.

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