donderdag 1 maart 2012

UK, Old and New Towns of Edinburgh

Edinburgh has been the Scottish capital since the 15th century. It has two distinct areas: the Old Town, dominated by a medieval fortress; and the neoclassical New Town, whose development from the 18th century onwards had a far-reaching influence on European urban planning. The harmonious juxtaposition of these two contrasting historic areas, each with many important buildings, is what gives the city its unique character.

The Old and New Towns of Edinburgh are a remarkable blend of the urban phenomena of organic medieval growth and 18th- and 19th-century town planning. The successive planned extensions of the New Town and the high quality of the architecture set standards for Scotland and beyond.
Edinburgh has been the Scottish capital since the 15th century, and it has two distinct areas: the Old Town, dominated by a medieval fortress built by King David I in the 12th century, and the neoclassical New Town, whose development from the 18th century onwards had a far-reaching influence on European urban planning.
During wars against the English in the 14th century, just one building was spared from destruction: the Chapel of St Margaret, built by King Malcolm III, within the destroyed medieval military fortress. The Castle Rock bore the core of the town, with the neo-Gothic tower of the Tolbooth Church of St John and the tower of the Church of St Giles. In the palace King James VI of Scotland and James I of England, son of Mary Stuart, was born in 1556.
Work on the New Town began in 1752 with the project of the architects John Adam and James Craig, consisting of a rectangular plan with a residential function and a commercial zone in Prince's Street. In 1789, Robert Adam planned the Old College, the University of Edinburgh, which was completed by William Playfair, and extended to an enlarged profile by Sir Rowand Anderson, in 1879. The town was subsequently expanded to the north, when in 1822 Gillespie Graham harmonized the two contrasting historic areas, each with many important buildings, to give the city its unique character.
Holyrood House, the scene of many important events of Scottish history, was originally the guest-house of Holyrood Abbey. It was transformed into a royal residence by James IV, and is at present the official residence of the queen in Scotland. Canongate Tolbooth is a very interesting 16th-century building, the former seat of justice of the Burgh of Canongate; it is easily identified by its imposing turreted steeple and clock.
Edinburgh has many museums and galleries, including the Royal Museum, an impressive early Italian Renaissance palazzo facade containing a great hall of wooden ribbed construction designed on Crystal Palace principles, together with smaller halls of similar design. Scotland's two major museums, situated in the heart of Edinburgh, house rich international collections. The National Gallery of Scotland and the neoclassical Art Gallery, with blind walls with shallow pilasters punctuated by Ionic porticoes, was originally designed as two buildings to house the Academy as well as the National Gallery.

Historical Description

Edinburgh's origins as a settlement extend back into prehistory, when its castle rock was fortified, and it may have served as a royal palace in the early historic period. The settlement that grew up was made a royal burgh by King David I (who also founded the nearby Abbey of Holyrood) in around 1125. The separate burgh of canongate, founded c 1140, has long been incorporated within Edinburgh. It was just one of the newly chartered towns of the 12th century which set the country's political and economic development on a new plane, but by the late 15th century it was the capital of Scotland. It had become a great architectural symbol of nationhood for Scotland.
The Old Town grew along the wide main street stretching from the castle on its rock to the medieval abbey and royal palace of Holyrood. The town was walled from the 15th century onwards. lt suffered badly during the English invasion of 1544, and most of the earlier buildings date from the rebuilding after this event. However, the later 16th century saw a steady increase in trade; by the early 17th century much of the wealth of the nation had come into the hands of the Edinburgh merchant elite, which resulted in considerable new building. The nobility also built town houses, which also contributed to the high quality of the domestic architecture of this period. From as early as the 16th century building control was enforced through the Dean of Guild: for example, as a precaution against fire all roofs had to be of tile or slate from 1621, and in 1674 this was extended to building facades, which had henceforth to be in stone.
At the end of the 19th century there had been a withdrawal from the Old Town as a result of the growth of the New Town. In 1892 Sir Patrick Geddes proposed that it should be regenerated by attracting back to it the university, the bourgeoisie, and the intelligentsia, by converting the High Street into "a collegiate street and city comparable in its way with the magnificent High Street of Oxford and its noble surroundings." His plan involved the reuse of older buildings where they still had utility, and many buildings were restored under his direction in the Lawnmarket. Although Geddes left Edinburgh before his vision could be fully realized, but his buildings remain. More restoration work was carried out as part of Sir Patrick Abercrombie's 1949 plan, though Geddes's concept of the High Street being reoccupied for residential purposes was abandoned.
The New Town developed as a suburban residential area for the nobility and for the merchant classes. The city, the charitable trusts, and the aristocratic landowners who promoted it insisted upon the finest materials being used, since they saw it as an enduring monument. That is why ashlar facing is used almost exclusively, instead of stucco. The New Town consists, in fact, of seven successive major development, each different from but closely related to its predecessors, a continuous programme of construction from 1767 to about 1890.
The First New Town originated in the proposals of Lord Provost Drummond, published in 1752 and embodied in an Act of Parliament the following year, which envisaged the development of the City's lands to the north of the Old Town, linked by an urban viaduct, the North Bridge. The rectangular layout was the work of James Craig, redrawn after consultation with John Adam. The second New Town followed in 1801-2, planned by Robert Reid, the King•s Architect, and William Sibbald, and located to the north of the first. lt breaks away from the strictly rectangular plan with some curved terraces. The Third New Town, the work of Robert Brown from 1813 onwards, essentially continues the approach of its predecessors.
This pattern changed with the Fourth New Town, planned by William Henry Playfair. Instead of imposing a grid-iron upon the landscape, the buildings exploit the contours, view, and trees in a romantic manner. The Fifth New Town, built from 1822 on the lands of the Earl of Moray to designs by J Gillespie Graham, cleverly links the first three New Towns as a unified scheme. lt was intended to be a self-contained enclave for aristocrats and professional gentry. The Sixth New Town followed in the 1850s on Lord Provost Learmonth's Dean Estate, to the north of the water of Leith, linked since 1831-32 with queensferry on the other side of the estuary by a bridge designed by Thomas Telford. The final New Town brought the hitherto detached Raeburn estate together with the rest.
Although the original idea was that the New Town should be a purely residential suburb, it rapidly proved to be attractive to business and government, and it rapidly drew this element of the city away from the Old Town. lt was to become the location for some of the finest public and commercial monuments of the neo-classical revival in Europe. Monuments symbolic of Scotland's past were grouped together on Calton Hill, in the aspiration to build the "Athens of the North."

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